This study aims to evaluate the changes in the independence and quality of the judicial process, in relation to judicial panels dealing with serious crimes in the military courts of Judea and Samaria (hereinafter, "the Region'). This evaluationfllows the 2002 transition from /udiialpanels, consisting of a lega/y trained fudge (the presiding judge) accompanied b two officers without a legal education, to expert panels consisting of three judges, all of whom are jurists. The rationale for integrating side judges into the legal system is their close relationsh with the target community and an increasedpublic confidence in the system. At the same time, this system has many disadvantages, such as the capacit of a non-expert judge to examine issues of substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and evidence, the fear of over-reliance on the expert judge and the inability to neutrai

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